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In Africa also, Islam has spread during the past two centuries even under the mighty power of European colonial rulers.
Today Islam continues to grow not only in Africa but also in Europe and America where Muslims now comprise a notable minority.
'Umar was succeeded by 'Uthman who ruled for some twelve years during which time the Islamic expansion continued.
He is also known as the caliph who had the definitive text of the Noble Quran copied and sent to the four corners of the Islamic world.
The scientific climate was reminiscent of the present situation in America where scientists and men and women of learning from all over the world are active in the advancement of knowledge which belongs to everyone.
And today this activity has begun anew in many parts of the Islamic world now that the Muslims have regained their political independence.
Upon the death of the Prophet, Abu Bakr, the friend of the Prophet and the first adult male to embrace Islam, became caliph.
'Umar also established the first public treasury and a sophisticated financial administration.
He established many of the basic practices of Islamic government.